Picture: Jakob Krattiger

This webpage provides a brief introduction and an overview of the Flammer Syndrome to the interested people. We have provided scientific reference to each statement to improve the readability. 

The relevant literatures about this topic are not very homogeneous as the old term was used in the older publications. In addition to this, some publications are in English whereas some are in German. There are both review articles and original articles. Only part of the publications are freely accessible (so-called Open Access).

The following list mainly focus on open access articles.

 The term Flammer syndrome was sporadically used earlier.

Initiates file download Flammer syndrome
Opens external link in new window Further reading about Flammer Syndrome

: A detailed (easiliy understandable to ordinary people) description of the Flammer Syndrome is available in the fourth edition (German)

Initiates file download Glaukombuch

and a scientific description in the following review article:

Initiates file download The primary vascular dysregulation syndrome: implications for eye diseases

The syndrome in the general context of blood circulation in:

Initiates file download The eye and the heart

:  The Flammer syndrome was originally va studied in the context of glaucoma:

Initiates file downloadThe impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma

The Flammer syndrome is associated with an increased retinal venous pressure:

Initiates file downloadThe effect of Flammer-syndrome on retinal venous pressure

For more information about retinal venous pressure:

Initiates file download Retinal venous pressure

Other Diseases: The Flammer syndrome plays a certain role in many diseases, here is an example.

Initiates file download Retinitis pigmentosa and ocular blood flow

Initiates file download Retinitis pigmentosa

Initiates file download Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy

Initiates file download Cilioretinal Artery Occlusion

Initiates file download Choroidal infarction

Initiates file download Multiple sclerosis

Initiates file download Perioperative visual loss

Initiates file download Breast cancer



Literature from the Basel clinic